24 Sep, 2018
06:23:46

Zapuščina sedemnajstega stoletja

Kaj ponavadi pomeni 300 let v zgodovini neke pokrajine? Zahvaljujoč se posebnemu prebivalcu dežele Kranjske, kakor se je v 17. stoletju imenoval del osrednje Slovenije, baronu Vajkardu Valvasorju, in njegovemu delu - Slavi vojvodine Kranjske, se je možno ozreti nazaj skozi čas in primerjati. To smo storili s petimi gradovi, ob katerih se lahko bralec seznani s podobo življenja v takratnem času in presenečen ugotovi, da je ostalo bistvo do današnjih dni v mnogih primerih nespremenjeno.


 

Valvasor


 
Pred 300 leti je baron po imenu Janez Vajkard Valvasor zajahal svojega konja in se odpravil po deželi Kranjski, da zapiše njene dosežke. V spremstvu svojega pomočnika, psa in peresa, je ustvaril zapise, ki dajejo edinstven vpogled v tedanje življenje ljudi. Ustvaril je obsežno knjigo z naslovom Slava vojvodine Kranjske, ki zajema 15 poglavij in ima kar 3532 strani. Natisnjena je bila leta 1689 v Nürnbergu v Nemčiji, kljub uspehu pa Valvasorju ni prinesla dobička.

 
Zapise iz Slave vojvodine Kranjske dopolnjujejo številne risbe, ki jih je prav tako ustvaril sam. S pomočjo skic lahko ugotovimo, da so gradovi, ki jih predstavljamo, še vedno zelo podobni baronovi upodobitvi, tako njihove zgradbe kot tudi okolica.

Grad Bogenšperk


 



 
Baronova rezidenca na Bogenšperku se nahaja v blagih hribih vzhodno od Ljubljane in je priljubljeno mesto za poroke. Del muzeja sestavlja Valvasorjeva soba, v kateri je ustvarjal, in obnovljena tiskarna. Skozi vrata se obiskovalcu odpira pogled na gozdove, ki je navdahnil tudi nastanek baronove mojstrovine.

Ljubljanski grad
 



 
 
Ljubljana, ki se je tedaj imenovala Laibach, je bila od Bogenšperka oddaljena dan ježe na konjskem hrbtu. Baron je Ljubljanskemu gradu in stavbam, ki so stisnjene na majhnem prostoru ob reki Ljubljanici, posvetil svojo največjo sliko.

2C. Stoletja, ki so jih zaznamovali vojne, potresi ter družbene spremembe, so spremenila videz, ki je bil znan Valvasorju, razen okroglega stolpa, ki je bil zelo verjetno takšen tudi v njegovih časih. Gozdovi okoli gradu pa predstavljajo takratno naravo.

Fužinski grad
 

 
Kratka razdalja loči Ljubljanico od druge ljubljanske trdnjave, Fužinskega gradu, ki sedaj gosti razstavo velikega slovenskega arhitekta Jožeta Plečnika. Zanj velja, da je dal Ljubljani zelen navdih, ki je zgoščen okoli reke, tržnice in gozdne potke, ki vodijo do obnovljenega gradu. Fužinski grad je bil takrat znan kot Kaltenbrunn ali slovensko »hladen vodomet«.

Škofjeloški grad
 

 

 

 

 
Le 25 kilometrov od Ljubljane leži skoraj nedotaknjeno srednjeveško mesto Škofja Loka, ki se razteza po hribih, ki obkrožajo sotočje dveh rek. Več kot 800 let prevlade bavarskih škofov Freising je pustilo edinstven pečat celotnemu, zelo lepo ohranjenemu središču. Zgodovinsko gledano je škofovsko mesto privabljalo tako trgovce kakor tudi verske romarje že od 8. stoletja dalje. Do gradu je mogoče priti po ovinkasti poti, ki se vije navzgor po hribu in je obdana z divjim cvetjem.
 
Idrijski grad
 



 
 
Zadnji grad se nahaja uro vožnje iz Ljubljane, v nekdanjem rudarskem mestu živega srebra, v Idriji. Vsaj od leta 1696 tu obstaja tradicija izdelovanja čipk, ki so jo iz tujine verjetno prinesle žene tujih rudarskih strokovnjakov in znanje posredovale ženam okoliških rudarjev. Nagrajen tehnološki muzej se sedaj nahaja na mestnem gradu Gewerkenegg. Del rudnika iz 16. stoletja je odprt tudi za turistične oglede.

Teh pet gradov v pravljičnem okolju je samo majhen del zapuščine 17. stoletja. Z malo domišljije si lahko bralec ustvari podobo življenja v teh krajih in spozna zapuščino, ki zaznamuje tako današnjo Slovenijo, kakor je tudi deželo Kranjsko iz 17. stoletja.
 

Jaqueline Widmar Stewart


 
 
Seventeenth Century Prizes

What a difference three hundred years usually makes! How often does a picturesque scene from the 1600's maintain its unique character, nestling into a valley snug against a wooded hill? Thanks to an extraordinary inhabitant of seventeenth century Carniola, as part of today's Slovenia was formerly known, it is possible to look back into time and compare. The biggest surprise is that the essence in many places has been wondrously preserved.
Over three hundred years ago a baron named Janez Vajkard Valvasor set off on horseback to record the glories of the lands of Carniola. Accompanied by an assistant, a dog and a pen, he sketched descriptions, both in drawings and sometimes very humorous prose, that give a rare view into the looks and lives of those times.
Even more astonishing than the records themselves may be the fact that you can cast your eyes on virtually the same scenes today. All five castles shown here bear striking resemblance to the Baron's depictions, both in buildings and the beauty of the settings. All lie within a 20-mile radius of Ljubljana castle and are reachable by car within an hour's drive.
Baron Valvasor's work, originally 15 volumes and over 3500 pages, was printed in German in the workshop of his Bogensperk estate and published in Nurnberg, Germany, in 1689. A one-volume Slovenian translation was issued in 1994. Even in abbreviated form, the charm and accuracy of the life, landscapes and castles come through with clarity and distinction.

 
The Baron's own residence of Bogensperk is situated in the soft rolling hills to the east of Ljubljana and serves as a favorite site for weddings. Part of the museum contains Baron Valvasor's writing studio and reconstructed printing room. 1D. Through the gate a visitor can gaze at the same wooded vistas that inspired the creation of Baron Valvasor's masterpiece.

Ljubljana, then known as Laybach, lay probably a day away on horseback. The Baron devoted his largest drawing to its castle on the hill and buildings that clustered along the Ljubljanica river.
2C. Centuries of earthquake, battle and changing use have altered the appearance that had been known to the Baron, but the rounded tower may well be true to what he saw. The castle's forests carry forward an historic lush green presentation.
 
A short distance down the Ljubljanica River from Ljubljana's bastion, the Fuzine Castle now houses an exhibit by Ljubljana's greatest urban designer. Joze Plecnik is credited for giving Ljubljana its green heart, its orientation to the river, stately marketplace and wooded pathway to the restored fortress. The Fuzine castle was earlier known as "Kaltenbrunn" or Cold Fountain.

To the west of Ljubljana, the largely-intact medieval city of Skofja Loka climbs the hills overlooking the confluence of two rivers. The more than 800-year dominion of the Bavarian bishops of Freising has set a singular tone for the entire very well-preserved center. Historically the bishops' city - skof means bishop - has drawn commercial and religious travelers since the eighth century. Reach the castle by a winding path up the hill bounded by wild-flowers.

Lastly, and in a location set apart to the south and west from Ljubljana lies the former quicksilver mining town of Idrija. Since at least 1696 lace making has been a tradition, perhaps taught to local miners' wives by the wives of foreign mining experts. An award-winning technology museum now occupies the town's Gerwerkenegg castle. A part of the mine from the 1500's is open for tours and miners' lodging houses still can be spotted in the cityscape.
These five castles in storybook settings serve as samples of the seventeenth century museum scattered around Slovenia. With little imagination the viewer can sketch out a mental image of life among the exquisite landscapes and artifacts that define today's Slovenia as well as they did 17th century Carniola.

 

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